If you're like most faculty, the choice of a textbook and creation of a weekly schedule and syllabus are some of your first steps when getting ready to teach a new class or change up an old one. But your students will learn more and perform better on your assessments if you take a different approach - an intentional one that reverses some key steps. Let's compare two approaches.
A common sequence of steps in preparing a course: This is a content-focused or topic-focused approach.
Select textbook or other readings, build a schedule of topics, and create a syllabus.
Create material (lecture, activities) to fill each class session.
Create assignments, quizzes, and tests to assess and give feedback on student learning.
A more effective, "backwards" design of a course: This is a results-focused approach.
Determine learning goals.
Determine acceptable evidence of that learning (assessments).
Plan learning experiences and instruction to help students reach the learning goals.
This sequence may feel backwards because textbook selection comes in step 3, while planning exams comes earlier, in step 2. However, by focusing our attention on learning goals and guiding us to promptly envision assessments matched to those goals, this method sets us up to maximize the extent to which our instructional activities support the goals, equipping students to demonstrate their learning and perform well on assessments.
Derived from Understanding by Design (Wiggins and McTighe)
How to Get Started
- Use one of our library's ebooks on designing instruction that are well-suited to university teaching and learning.
- Understanding by Design (Wiggins and McTighe)
- Creating Significant Learning Experiences : An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses (L. Dee Fink)
The most actionable chapters in Fink's book are:
- Getting Started
- Shaping Learning Experiences
- Planning Your Course: A Decision Guide
- Or use this more concise Self-Directed Guide to Designing Courses for Significant Learning by L. Dee Fink. This guide for self-study foregrounds helpful worksheets, summaries, and visual aids.
- Or use these step-by-step course design resources from Carnegie Mellon's Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence and Educational Innovation
- Learn about Universal Design for Learning from Online Education and Training, one of our partners in the Faculty Commons.
More Benefits of Backwards Instructional Design
There are many approaches to this type of backwards instructional design. More elaborate versions of this method help us create more powerful learning experiences by guiding us to:
- Think carefully about our audience (learners) and the context in which learning will occur.
- Break down complex tasks (like writing a research paper) into component skills to ensure that sufficient and well-sequenced instruction is provided.
- Write specific, measurable, learning objectives.
- Provide both ample opportunities for practicing skills and frequent, prompt feedback.
- Plan for how we will evaluate and revise our instruction.